Xeroderma Pigmentosum C: A Valuable Tool to Decipher the Signaling Pathways in Skin Cancers. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

Résumé

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal genodermatosis that manifests clinically with pronounced sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the high probability of the occurrence of different skin cancer types in XP patients. XP is mainly caused by mutations in XP-genes that are involved in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway that functions in the removal of bulky DNA adducts. Besides, the aggregation of DNA lesions is a life-threatening event that might be a key for developing various mutations facilitating cancer appearance. One of the key players of NER is XPC that senses helical distortions found in damaged DNA. The majority of XPC gene mutations are nonsense, and some are missense leading either to the loss of XPC protein or to the expression of a truncated nonfunctional version. Given that no cure is yet available, XPC patients should be completely protected and isolated from all types of UV radiations (UVR). Although it is still poorly understood, the characterization of the proteomic signature of an XPC mutant is essential to identify mediators that could be targeted to prevent cancer development in XPC patients. Unraveling this proteomic signature is fundamental to decipher the signaling pathways affected by the loss of XPC expression following exposure to UVB radiation. In this review, we will focus on the signaling pathways disrupted in skin cancer, pathways modulating NER’s function, including XPC, to disclose signaling pathways associated with XPC loss and skin cancer occurrence.